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6-1 Strong Fictional Characters

(c) 2010, Mona Leeson Vanek

This advice is shared by Alan Girling, Freelance Writer.
  • "Do you need to study strong female fictional characters? Have you related to those in books such as the Taming of the Shrew; Jane Eyre; Anne of Green Gables? At The Back Fence,, you'll find a long, interesting and very thorough essay on heroines in classic fiction and modern romance with detailed descriptions, many links, and relevant quotations from discussed books." ~~ Alan Girling

Chapter 6 - Permissions and Writer Beware:

Next, 6-2, All About Names:

3-5 Quoting Quotes

(c) 2010 Mona Leeson Vanek

When quoting someone else's quotes for historical references, you say
  • Quoted in REFERENCE, page [xxx.]
However, be careful in assuming fair use in ANY case, especially if you're getting paid for the project.

Anthony Robbins was successfully sued over the use of a couple of TWO-WORD phrases. There is no word count limit that determines fair use, and if you're getting paid to write the book, it's a "commercial purpose."

There's an excellent article about this on Ivan Hoffman's website at, Ivan's entire site has many, many useful articles. He is an attorney who specializes in copyright and intellectual property law. There are two previous articles on other aspects of fair use, as well.

Keep in mind that Hoffman's articles are not intended as legal advice and are not legal advice. The articles are intended to provide only general, non-specific legal information and are not intended to cover all the issues related to the topic discussed.

Chapter 5 - Copyrights, Previously Published Works,and Using Quotations:

Next: Chapter 6 - Permissions and Writer Beware:

9-6 What About Distribution and Publicists?

(c) 2010, Mona Leeson Vanek

Distribution has always been one of the major reasons for not self-publishing your book. So what can you do to help turn that around?

Diane Diekman, author of two books she self-published, A Farm in the Hidewood; My South Dakota Home (ISBN 0-9708201-0-0) and Navy Greenshirt: A Leader Made, Not Born (ISBM 0-9708201-1-9), says boxes of them remain because she had no distribution system. However, since the University of Illinois Press, which has worldwide distribution, published her third book, "Live Fast, Love Hard: The Faron Young Story (ISBN is 978-0-252-03248-6.)

U of I Press sent 17,000 catalogs around the world, made numerous contacts for reviews, and a blurb in the Faron Young book jacket promotes her earlier books. And now, Diane makes good use of her website,, where links publicize her first two books, plus Faron Young, Marty Robbins (Twentieth Century Drifter: The Life of Marty Robbins, her book in progress) and a link to her Newsletter and Blog.

Still, Diane said that hiring a publicist would have been helpful. A publicist would have set up book tours and radio interviews and other events for her. Many publishers do not set up events, or pay for them. And if you self-publish a publicist may be able to help. You must also ensure that bookstores will allow you to bring in your book if you are able to schedule a book signing, and be sure that sufficient copies are at the event.

Developing your platform is extremely important. Speak at every opportunity. Network with professional writers. Start a newsletter as soon as you finish writing your book. Be creative and grow your subscriber list. Network with other newsletter-owners and ask them to offer reprints of yours to their distribution list, if possible.

Diane started a weekly Faron Young email newsletter more than two years before publication of her book, after she'd finished writing her manuscript. By the time her book was on book shelves, her subscriber list had grown from 40 to almost 400, and another newsletter with a 20,000-person distribution reprints hers.

Distribution and platforms are critical, however not every professional agrees on the importance of platforms. Begin by reading the following post,, at Michael Hyatt's website. Then scroll to the bottom of the post and check out the articles linked there:
Then, you should know enough to begin your strategy for success.

Chapter 18 - Book Publishing:

Next: 9-7 What an Agent Expects to See:

2-5 Grammar Resources

(c) 2010, Mona Leeson Vanek

Where do you go for answers to grammar questions?

The following websites can help, a grammar forum for the gray areas of the English language offers excellent help,

The University of Chicago Writing Program,

The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill has an excellent handout here,

Find answers to grammar questions at Capital Community College Foundation sponsors The Guide to Writing and Grammar: Click Index to get links to whatever you want to know about.

Chapter 4 - Writers Guidelines and Magazine Calendars

Next: Chapter 5 - Copyrights, Previously Published Works,and Using Quotations:

9-9 Trade Book Publishing Agreement

(c) 2010, Mona Leeson Vanek, is a great site to study and learn about trade book publishing. Visit About Us and acquaint yourelf with owner, Lloyd Jassin. Read the Articles, explore the Forms, and don't miss Visit Our Blog, and become a regular follower.
then become a regular follower.

Chapter 18 - Book Publishing:

Next, Chapter 19 - Research and Libraries:

9-2 About That Agent

(c) 2010 Mona Leeson Vanek

You'll find many answers to your questions about agents by visiting The Association of Authors' Representatives (AAR), AAR's site explains the organization and tells what to expect from a reputable agent. Before you begin your search for an agent to represent you, explore the wealth of information offered to learn such things as etiquette, what questions to ask an agent, etc.

You'll also find very good links to help you understand many aspects of writing at Dan Perez' web site,, including an article on what to look for in an agent.

Many agents prefer cover letters that demonstrate your writing ability to query letters. Sound assured and be very clear. If they enhance the focus of your manuscript, it’s okay to include clips (your previously published material).

Your query should clearly ask, "Do you want to see my book proposal about [ xxx…]?”.

When you receive an affirmative response, send the proposal with a cover letter saying, "Here is the proposal you requested for, “working book title.”

Just because an agent asks for exclusivity on your proposal doesn't mean she necessarily thinks it’s saleable. It only means she doesn't want to waste her time looking at it if someone else is also looking at it. Agents get as high as 300+ queries a week.

On Natalie R. Collins' web site,, scroll to the bottom where you'll find Agent link. The agents listed have a verifiable track record of legitimate sales. It's updated about every three months. Each agent is researched before being added. No additions are made without her approval. TIP: The Agent page will give you instructions on how to download the list that's grown to large to display on a web page.

Collins says,
"I will not claim every agent on there is good, because I have heard of some writers having HORRIBLE experiences with A-list agents, but it's a good place to start. One big plus, you will not find scam artist agents on this listing."
Collins is the author of Wives and Sisters, and Behind Closed Doors, from St. Martin's Press. Find Suspense Fiction Behind the Zion Curtain here:

You should never be shy of asking questions about the agent's background and way of working.

  1. About the agent's background in publishing, Hollywood or the law.
  2. Which clients and/or types of books the agent represents.
  3. Which publishers the agent works with regularly.
  4. Does the agent visit New York (if he or she doesn't work there).
  5. How will you be expected to pay the agent (is he or she asking any reading or editorial fees beyond the commission?)
  6. Whether the agent will forward publishers' rejection letters (if any) to you upon their receipt
  7. Whether you'll be consulted on all deals that go through on your behalf (you must be!)
  8. To what extent the agent is experienced and aggressive in selling subsidiary rights (or engaging co-agents to do it for him or her) and negotiating points on your contract.
When a publisher accepts your proposal, you should always be able to get a list from the agent of where she submitted it and copies of rejection letters.

Alternative to having an agent
For some books, you’ll do well by dealing directly with a publisher. Do your homework to find an appropriate publisher who accepts manuscripts from writers. Then query the publisher’s Acquisitions Editor.

When requested by the AE, send your formal proposal. Be sure to follow the publishing house’s template if you get one. It will include an overview of other competing books on the market, with publisher, author, ISBN, etc., and a few paragraphs that detail how your book is better, or adds value not found in those already available.

When dealing directly with a publishing house, be sure to have your Intellectual Properties Attorney review and explain the contract details so you clearly understand them. After the publisher makes you an offer, it’s legitimate to get an agent to represent you.

Above all, make sure you have a sense that the agent likes and understands your work and knows the market (the specific editors and houses) for it. If your genre is a newer area for the agent, that's not necessarily a bad thing (it may make you the agency's "star client" in that genre), but just be sure the agent knows who the right editors will be. And be certain that the person seems like someone you could work happily with. Your agent doesn't have to become your closest pal, but he or she does need to be someone you can trust, respect, and feel comfortable with.

One last point: it's diplomatic to reserve these questions for your interview or discussion with the agent, after the agent calls or writes to express interest in representing you. Agents can more comfortably discuss them over the phone with you than in writing (either by email or by letter). Don't put them in your query letter or you'll probably alienate the person.

Also, check out QueryTracer,

Contracts resulting from an agent's efforts
Look at a contract as a business proposition, not just as an opportunity to publish books. Your agent might help you get the best contract, but you will want your Intellectual Property Attorney on board, too.

Novelists, Inc., keeps its members connected, communicating, and well informed while striving to better the status of fiction writers: This fine web site has excellent articles. Use tabs at the top to locate. One article, written by Laura Resnick about negotiating a book contract, has some relevance to magazine contracts.

Chapter 18 - Book Publishing:

Next: 9-3 Audio Book Publishing:

10-4 More Useful Links to Markets

(c) 2010 Mona Leeson Vanek

LitLine, A Website for the Independent Literary Community,

Poets and Writers, (Click Magazines and scroll to Classifieds at bottom of that page.)


Poetry Publishers Who Accept email Submissions, Compiled continually by Louie Crew,

Literary Magazines, Every Writer's Resource,

Millikin University of Haiku, Directory of haiku magazines,

Chapter 21 - Polish, Sell, and Enjoy Rewards!:

Next: 10-5, Use Wi-Fi Legally:

3-4 Interviewing to Write Profiles

(c) 2010, Mona Leeson Vanek

John Palcewski has enjoyed a long and eclectic career as a newspaper reporter, music/drama critic, magazine editor, UPI photojournalist, fine arts photographer, poet, and fiction author. Writing a personality profile on Miles Davis launched him on his professional writing career, and he says profiles have always been his favorite thing. "I regard writing profiles as a "kind of journalistic/psychoanalytical process," Palcewski says, "I try to get to know the person as much as possible."

He studies his subject, and gets to know them through research in the library, as well as through their personal friends and family. He advises using the Internet and various search engines to gather everything that has been written about the person.

Note same or similar biographical elements appearing in various sources and also note elements that you can personally relate to.

Don't rely on just taking notes, be sure to also keep a record of the URL where you found each piece of data as you might never locate the source again. Remember, technology is not fail safe -- don't find yourself relying on the Internet without taking valuable notes. Both are important.

Interview as many of the subject's friends and relatives as you can and ask each to describe the subject in 25 words or less (the length of a good newspaper lead!). Gather input as well from the subjects'colleagues, especially those who are critical of him/her.

After you've assembled a nice big pile, very slowly and carefully read it over several times.
"Then sit down and start writing out a list of questions. These questions should flow naturally from the material you've already assembled. Compose questions relating to the contradictory things you've read, and also about other biographical episodes.
"Then arrange for an interview. There is a lot of debate about location, whether it should be on his/her turf, or in a neutral place. Much of it depends on to what extent the subject wants to cooperate. But it's essential to get as much time as possible, and ideally arrange in advance some follow-up meetings or telephone calls.
"Start the interview with thanking the subject for granting the interview, and make it emphatic! And then begin your questions with all the positive things the subject has been involved with, allow him/her to revisit pleasant experiences.
"As you are conducting the interview, it's essential to make the subject know that you are truly INTERESTED in what he/she is saying. That means sitting on the edge of your chair, leaning forward just a bit, and keeping eye contact. People know when you are receptive, or when you are just going through the motions.
"The fact that you have spent the time doing your homework will soon become apparent to the subject, and body language that reinforces your interest will create the best possible climate.
"If there are controversial questions, like a history of drug use or other negative things, save them for the very end. The whole idea is to fashion the interview in such a way that the subject naturally starts revealing personal things. And it will happen only if a feeling of trust has been established.
"If the subject objects to certain questions, you can say, well, look. I'm a journalist, and I'm sorry to be so intrusive, but readers ARE curious about these things. Another way to frame difficult questions is to say: "Many people would say that..." followed by either silence or "What would YOU say to them?"
"I usually use a tape recorder for two reasons. One, you have something that is "proof" beyond question of what was said. Two, you must spend a lot of time transcribing the tape. This gives you further time saturating yourself with the subject. The idea here is to "master" the material. Doing so not only brings a fuller understanding of the subject, but it also makes the writing easier."
A favorite aphorism of John's is: "Master the content; form will rise to meet you."

Other professional writers offered these tips
  • If the subject can't talk when you contact them, find a specific time frame that suits both your schedules, and allow set the date to set aside time to be interviewed. It will less pressured and they'll feel more in control.
  • Letting the person take the lead is essential to having a good laid back interview.
  • If you are interviewing by phone, start to wrap up the interview before the person gets tired and is ready to quit. Often the interviewee comes forward with good information at this point--many Interviewees have specific things they want included. Or, make sure you ask, "Is there anything else you would like to add?"
  • Be prepared. Make a list of questions and them hone them down. Don't have too many, and allow room for spontaneous conversation.
  • Do research before you go. If there are things from other articles or promotional material you want to use, be sure to ask if it's correct. You'd be surprised how many times you'll be told, "no, actually...."
  • If possible, interview the person in a place where they feel most comfortable, and don't forget to build rapport and identify with them.
  • Most people, particularly older/retired individuals, are often quite humble; they don't see anything spectacular or unusual about their lives. Chatting a bit before the interview often helps you to identify a theme-focus if you're interviewing them cold. 
Freelance writer, Holly Michael, who also writes profiles says,
"What works best for me is to create a comfortable environment. I let them choose the place, their home works great.
"Then I begin by just chatting and finding a familiar ground. Maybe we have children the same age or we both eat too much chocolate or something like that. Usually if you can find a common thing, a person will open up more.
"To me it isn't about asking all the right questions, but more about drawing lots of goodies out of them. I probably break all the rules of interviewing ... I don't make any lists of questions UNLESS I am interviewing over the phone -- it's best to have a list ready when phoning."
Find out about their involvements and interests i.e. member of Rotary Club, quilter, retired Air Force, Vietnam vet, mother, La Leche, etc., church. This gives you not only different aspects to investigate or ask about, but sometimes it gives insight into what kind of person they are. It also opens more markets for a profile article.

Kim Pawlak, who wrote 'Notables,' a textbook author profile advised requesting the author's curriculum vitae or resume. It contains the statistics, numbers of books published, awards, success of the books, etc. In addition to researching documented material, she also talked to professors in the subject's field who shed light on the author.

Karen Blue, freelance writer who retired to Mexico where she wrote extensively about the benefits to single women who relocated there, says
  • Take notes about body language. (Chewing fingers, blowing smoke rings, etc.) to make your profile more personal.
  • Always have a general idea about where the interview is going, but encourage them to go off on a tangent if it seems more interesting than the stock questions you had prepared.
  • Take pictures, you'll forget after a while what some interviewees looked like. And have a backup recorder and batteries.
So, do not be intimidated about interviewing. With all the right tools on hand, you too can become a profiler.

Chapter 5 - Copyrights, Previously Published Works,and Using Quotations:

Next, 3-5, Quoting Quotes:

3-7 Let Writing Careers and Writers and Artists Glossary Terms Enhance Your Vocabulary

(c) 2010, Mona Leeson Vanek

Put more writer's savy into your vocabulary today with a glossary of the terms used in your profession. It's very frustrating when someone tells you something and you misunderstand, or can't comprehend, the terms they're using. Don't be caught unaware. You'll be more savy after a visit to the glossary of terms that pertain to literature, writing, art, graphic design, and technology at WriteDesignonline, Bookmark it now.

For example, an advance isn't moving a chess piece, clip isn't how you trim your nails, galley isn't the sailboat's kitchen, imprint isn't pushing your palms into plaster of paris, and pasteup isn't gluing objects.A good many words have different meanings for editors and publishers than the way you've always understood them.There's an excellent recently updated glossary of writing careers here in John Hewitt's, PoeWar archives,

Chapter 8 - Newsgroups, Forums and Reference Desks:

Next: Chapter 9 - Querying and Related Issues:

10-6 Writing Software

(c) 2010 by Mona Leeson Vanek

It goes without saying that a writer's job is easier when they are comfortable and satisfied with their writing software program(s)! But, sadly, that's not always the case and increasing numbers of writers are switching the software they use for writing, despite editor's preference for manuscripts written in MS-Word. is an open source program like Mozilla and Firefox. It's free. Anything you do in OpenOffice can be saved in Microsoft Office format. Anything in MS Office format can be opened with OpenOffice. OpenOffice has a word processor, a spread sheet, a power point, and other gadgets. It's far more stable and saves with far less file space demand than anything offered by Microsoft. It's intuitive but also has a great help file.

Note: Always be sure to READ THE TERMS.

Gary Presley explained OpenOffice to me,
"Download a free copy of OpenOffice. And when you do, make a contribution because it's superb software. If you appreciated the open source community's efforts to make a product like Firefox available, you'll dance with joy after using OpenOffice; you can save work in a variety of formats, and it opens MS stuff with a click of the mouse.
"You'll also notice fewer crashes, minimal hang-ups, and that saved OO works take up much less space than similar MS documents. I had material that comprised about a quarter of a meg when saved in OpenOffice, but the editor wanted it in Word. I saved a Word copy, and it was over a meg in size. We use OpenOffice at our house to substitute for Word (my stuff) or Powerpoint (for my wife's teaching needs), and we'll never go back. And, the thesaurus (a writer's best friend) in OpenOffice also outshines the one in Word.
"It takes only a few seconds to set up a separate folder and save your writing there in Word format. In fact, you can save or open documents in a dozen formats via a pull down menu after you click "Save As."
"Nearly every editor I've worked with wants manuscripts in Word or Plain Text, but the simplicity and reliability of OpenOffice is so solid that I don't mind making a copy in Word for those editors "behind the curve."
Give it a try and if you find you like it, it may save you the money of buying MSWord or MSOffice.

Another option is available if you don't have MS-Word. You can create Word, Excel and Powerpoint documents online at, Read the Terms here,

Chapter 21 - Polish, Sell, and Enjoy Rewards!:

Next: 10-7 Blog Income Tips: (currently being revised)

10-5 Use Wi-Fi Legally

(c) 2010, Mona Leeson Vanek

Staying on the safe side of the law is never foolish no matter what anyone claims so it makes good sense to know Wi-Fi laws, and abide by them. History is often our best teacher, and you won't go wrong by following Debra Littlejohn Shinder advice, because it's still relevant.

A June, 2007 news item, by Sara Bonisteel, reported the arrest and conviction of a man piggybacking on a cafe's Wi-Fi,,2933,276720,00.html. That resulted in my decision to add the following information, provided by Debra Littlejohn Shinder, MCSE, MVP, editor of WXPNews and author of "Scene of the Cybercrime (Syngress Publishing)."

(c) 2009 Debra Littlejohn Shinder

"There are a number of different issues involved in connecting to an open wireless network or opening up your own wireless network to the public. Some are contractual issues and others involve criminal laws.

"First, let's look at the contractual issues. In the case of consumer ISP accounts, most providers prohibit in their terms of service (ToS) agreements allowing anyone outside of your household to use your Internet bandwidth. Thus someone else connecting to your network could cause you to have your Internet service terminated either temporarily or permanently. So while running a "freenet" or a wireless network that's intentionally open to the public may seem like a generous thing to do, but it could have serious consequences if you don't have the permission of your ISP.

"Even if your ISP permits you to share your bandwidth, be careful about doing so. A computer connecting to your network can deliberately or inadvertently spread viruses, worms, Trojans, rootkits, etc. throughout your network or serve as a conduit for an attack if he/she connects to web sites that run malicious controls or applets. These could result in loss of data, network downtime and even corruption of your system files to the point of having to reinstall your operating system and applications.

"Also be aware of how your service is billed. Although most ISPs these days provide "unlimited" service for a set fee, some DSL and T-1 providers DO still charge by the megabyte so that a rogue wireless computer on the network can put the you over the threshold for the next level of service and cost you more money.

"Many people are sharing their networks without even knowing they're doing it because the default setting on their WAP or router is for the network to be open. Be sure to check your device's settings and if you don't want to or aren't permitted to run an open network, enable encryption.

"From the other end (using someone else's wireless connection), it's important to understand that this is illegal under the criminal laws of most states in the U.S. if you don't have the network owner's permission. Just because the other person or company left their network open (unencrypted), that doesn't mean you have consent to use it, just as the fact that your neighbor leaves his front door unlocked doesn't give you permission to enter his house without his permission. Laws differ in different jurisdictions and unauthorized access is a felony in many areas. Be sure you know what the laws are where you are.

"Some people, companies and public entities do set up free wireless networks that they invite anyone to use. You should be careful, though, when taking advantage of such freebies. A freenet operated by a municipality or other government entity or a legitimate company is relatively safe (although connecting to any public wireless network poses some security risks). But connecting to a freenet set up by an individual you don't know can result in all sorts of trouble.

"Some bad guys are deliberately setting up open wireless networks and naming them something like "FREENET" to encourage people to connect, then accessing the info on those computers and using it for identity theft. Never, ever connect to a random wireless network with a computer that has any kind of financial or personal information on it (and be aware that if, for example, you've entered things like your banking password or your credit card info into a web browser, it may very well be cached (saved) on the hard drive)."

DEBRA LITTLEJOHN SHINDER is a Microsoft MVP specializing in enterprise security and CEO of TACteam (Trainers, Authors and Consultants). A former police officer/criminal justice instructor, she has written or contributed to over 20 books and hundreds of articles for print and online publications.

Remember, when you buy a Wi-Fi equipped device it's your responsibility to find out what you can and can't legally do with that device, just as it would be if you were buying any other piece of electronics. There are alternatives to illegal piggybacking -- and some form of Internet access is available at most universities and libraries.

Chapter 21 - Polish, Sell, and Enjoy Rewards!:

Next: 10-6: Writing Software:

10-1 Sold Again

(c) 2010, Mona Leeson Vanek

Yahoo! An editor has offered to purchase your article. Today, most major magazines enter into contractual agreements with authors and take all the rights the writer will let them get by with. Before you sign the contract is the time to negotiate rights.

Don't be afraid to negotiate every contract. with vigor. _Know_ what rights you are selling to the first publisher.*(see sidebar on rights negotiating.) Make sure you have the final agreement in writing before the article is published.

There are, however, still many publications that don't use contracts. According to US law, if there has been no discussion of rights, one time rights or first rights are assumed. This is currently true for paper-print publications, but electronic rights are still, legally, far from being clear and are being influenced by many factors.

Don't chance giving electronic rights to the publisher free by not discussing them just as soon as the editor offers to publish your article. Also, limiting the duration of electronic rights influences reprint marketability.

Whoopee! Your article has been published! You've banked the money and basked in the glow of success. Now what?

To be on safe ground, as soon as your article is published write (or e-mail) the publisher asking him to reassign remaining rights to you. Then you're ready to market again, or sell reprints. Many magazines are happy to publish a reprint if it has had a limited distribution or has been published in a totally different market area (ie. sports magazine versus a nature magazine.)

Go back to your original marketing plan, the one you researched and planned before you sold the article. It's time to start marketing reprints to the remaining markets on your spreadsheet. Searching out markets that take reprints is an especially good way to turn small-potatoes" writing into steady income. It's not unusual for reprints to bring higher fees than first rights generated. These are called second publication rights or one-time rights.

Opportunities exist in other areas, too, for selling reprints. Regional magazines are one type of publication. For example, parenting publications and rural electric co-op magazines are regionals. Regionals will often be happy to reprint articles that other regional publications have already published because, as far as their readers will ever see, it's a first run. Marketing reprints is a potential way to make money from regional magazines, without the work of more writing.

Another good aspect is, once you can tell an editor that x, y, and z regional magazines have already printed it, they are much more likely to buy it from you for their magazine. Articles that have been published in larger magazines are attractive, too, because they have already been honed and polished.

So don't bother reslanting and remarketing for the regionals. Just happily resell your published work in its original form. And don't overlook other genre niches, like trade magazines.

How do you query for a reprint?
First Example:
"Please consider the following articles for reprint in XYZ Magazine. "The (name of published article)" was originally published in (name of original publication) on (Date of publication). One time rights were sold."
Note: Be sure to include all previous publications of the article, not just the original publisher\date.

Second example:
"I am offering to (name of magazine you're offering it to) an article I wrote on (subject of the published article). It appears in the (Date of publication) issue of (name of original publication). (Include URL of web site if applicable). I own the reprint rights to this article. (Or, if the publisher owns them, say "please contact xxxxx magazine for reprint rights. I have copied the article into this e-mail. You'll find it below. My articles have appeared in x x x x x x x and others,
"I look forward to hearing from you. Please contact me before publication to guarantee regional exclusivity."
Third example:
"Please consider purchasing one-time print rights for the following story, (name of story) *Note: One-time rights have been previously sold to (name of other publication that has already bought the rights), but so far it hasn't shown up in print."
Selling reprints brings in money you can bank and lets you bask in the glow of success -- over and over.

Chapter 21 - Polish, Sell, and Enjoy Rewards!:

Next: 10-2, Selling Reprints: